The History of Artifacts

Provenance Research at the Museum of the Bible

Objects in museums tell us stories about the past. An artifact's provenance is the history of its ownership and location, from its creation or place of modern discovery to the present. This history helps to verify the authenticity and importance of an artifact. It also contributes to our understanding of how an object was used over time. An object with a well-documented provenance teaches us much more about the past than one without a confirmed history.

Documenting Provenance

A common challenge in documenting provenance is that historically—in contrast to modern practices of documenting transactions and keeping archival records—many objects have changed hands over decades or even centuries without accompanying records being provided to the new owner. In addition, many owners request anonymity when selling objects through auction houses or otherwise transferring works through private transactions.

Two areas are of special concern for museums in general and for Museum of the Bible (MOTB) in particular: first, items that may have been subject to Nazi-era looting in Europe from 1933–1945, and second, ancient objects that may have originated in source nations or in areas of modern conflict, such as modern-day Afghanistan, Iraq, and Syria. Museum of the Bible, in consultation with cultural heritage and legal experts, has developed procedures for researching and investigating objects with potentially difficult histories in areas of turmoil. In doing so, Museum of the Bible has made a firm commitment to ethical collecting and to acknowledging objects in its collection that may have entered the market as a result of war, looting, or colonial practice.

Museum of the Bible’s acquisition policy was adopted in 2016. Collections staff has undertaken a comprehensive review of all purchases and donations made prior to 2016 to determine whether each object meets the standards of this policy, whether some mediation is needed (such as listing on standard public databases or contacting the possible country of origin), or whether the item requires further research before being displayed or published. This research includes items in the MOTB collection as well as items loaned from other museums, collections, and educational institutions. The sources of information for our research include:

  • Museum curatorial and registration records
  • Documentation provided by previous sellers, owners, and collectors
  • Publication history of significant items
  • Exhibition history
  • Contact with previous owners or sellers where possible
  • Auction catalogs
  • Research into significant private collections and their catalogs
  • Export licenses and other customs documentation from the country of origin
  • Import documentation
  • Publications by scholars, both those connected with and those outside Museum of the Bible
  • Scientific analysis, such as carbon-14 dating and ink analysis
  • Previous owners' signatures, bookplates, and other identifying information on the object itself
  • Stylistic analysis indicating the likely time period or location of an object's creation

Frequently, it is impossible to document an object’s complete provenance, especially for common or generic items like household objects and bound volumes, and there are many reasons why we may not be able to account for every episode of an object’s history. Requests for anonymity, poor record-keeping habits, and the destruction of records (whether intentional or inadvertent) are common challenges. Furthermore, some categories of objects, such as rare books and everyday ceremonial objects, have long been bought and sold by reputable dealers and collectors without any expectation of a recorded provenance. Despite these obstacles, we seek to provide the fullest information possible about the museum’s objects.

Museum of the Bible curators and registrars conduct detailed research into the provenance of every object in its permanent collection and on display in the museum. Research on the approximately 3,100 items that are on display in the Washington, DC, museum has been completed, in consultation with cultural heritage and legal experts. Of the 3,100 items, approximately 1159 are owned by Museum of the Bible. There are 41 lenders for all other items. This research helps to establish whether ownership of each artifact is in compliance with all applicable laws and regulations, and with ethical guidelines of the Museum and of U.S. and international museum associations. To assist the public in understanding the challenges in the Museum’s collection, items with significant gaps in their provenance have been noted in the display cases or wall panels of the museum, with further information provided on this page. As the Museum’s ongoing provenance research continues, additional information will be added on this page regularly. We welcome further information on the provenance of any object displayed in the Museum. Please contact us at


Due to past practices, the history of objects from the ancient world are particularly difficult to trace from their creation or discovery to modern times. Artifacts excavated on scientific archaeological excavations are the most useful because we know the city in which they were found, the building in which they were found, and even about the other artifacts that were found in the same context. This is the best form of provenance. Many museums have artifacts that were not found on archaeological excavations, however, so it is common to see antiquities with uncertain find-spots in major collections around the world.

Incunabula and Printed Books

For centuries, the rare book trade has only infrequently tracked provenance information. Even incunables (books printed before 1501) are often bought and sold without ownership history being passed on. Museum of the Bible has researched each item in its collection, documented purchase history, and, where applicable, indicated donation history to the museum. Identifying marks, such as bookplates, previous owner’s signatures, library deaccession stamps, etc., have been documented for each item and will be made available to researchers as the collection database is digitized. Books that are particularly rare and important but that lack a clear twentieth-century provenance have been researched through the Art Loss Register and other Holocaust research resources to ensure that they were not subject to Nazi-era looting.


The Museum Collections display a large number of items that demonstrate the impact of the Bible in people’s everyday lives. Many of those objects were produced in the United States. For unique items, such as letters or manuscripts, ownership history has been reviewed and documented to the fullest extent possible. Most items, however, come from private collections or book dealers, sources which have not historically kept provenance documentation on these everyday objects. This makes further research extremely difficult.

Publication of the Provenance of Artifacts in Museum of the Bible

Museum of the Bible is developing a publicly accessible database of all objects on display, as well as those in storage. The database is now available, with additional objects regularly being added to the site. In addition to images and item information, provenance is listed for each object.

Images, content, and other intellectual property owned or managed by the Museum of the Bible (MOTB) are provided by only for personal or professional study or for non-commercial use unless otherwise approved. No reproductions in any form may be made unless otherwise stated in writing by Museum of the Bible. MOTB images, content, and other intellectual property may not be used for commercial purposes without prior written consent. For more information including access to the rights and reproduction request form, please visit our Rights and Reproduction page.

Objects with Incomplete Provenance

Dead Sea Scroll Fragments

Following the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls (DSS) in the late 1940s and early 1950s, scholars and institutions worked diligently to acquire, organize, and authenticate the newly discovered manuscripts (some complete and many in fragments). Also during this same time—taking advantage of the excitement generated by the astonishing discoveries—attempts were made to sell forged fragments. Even the earliest scholars involved—like Roland de Vaux—recall seeing forged fragments in the 1950s (Roland de Vaux, “Historique de découvertes,” in Le Grottes de Murabba‘at: Texte, eds. Pierre Benoit, Józef T. Milik, and Roland de Vaux, DJD 2:1 [Oxford: Clarendon, 1961], 3–8). This minor and largely forgotten aspect of the DSS story has received renewed attention in recent years, following the appearance, since 2002, of several dozen additional fragments in the antiquities market—fragments that have ended up in the collections of universities, museums, and private collectors.

Museum of the Bible curates 16 fragments associated with the Dead Sea Scrolls discoveries. Thirteen fragments were published by a team of scholars in the book Dead Sea Scrolls Fragments in the Museum Collection, Publications of Museum of the Bible 1 (Leiden: Brill, 2016). This book briefly outlines the scrolls’ acquisition history. “The fragments were purchased on behalf of Mr. Steven Green in four lots from four private collectors at the following times and received in Oklahoma City shortly thereafter” (Fragments, 3):

  1. Four purchased from Dr. Craig Lampe in November 2009: SCR.000120 (Exodus), SCR.000121 (Psalms), SCR.000122 (Leviticus?), SCR.000123 (Instruction).
  2. One purchased from Michael Sharpe Rare & Antiquarian Books in February 2010: SCR.000124 (Genesis).
  3. Seven purchased from William Kando in May 2010: SCR.003170 (Daniel), SCR.003171 (Jonah), SCR.003172 (Jeremiah), SCR.003173 (Numbers), SCR.003174 (Ezekiel), SCR.003175 (Nehemiah), SCR.003183 (Micah).
  4. Four purchased from Andrew Stimer in October 2014: SCR.004742 (Leviticus), SCR.004741, SCR.004768, and SCR.004769 (the latter three are unidentified and were not included in the Brill volume).

The four fragments acquired from Dr. Lampe were exhibited in the US between 2004 and 2009, with photos published in the exhibition catalog, The Dead Sea Scrolls to the Bible in America: A Brief History of the Bible from Antiquity to Modern America Told through Ancient Manuscripts and Early European and American Printed Bibles (Biblical Arts of Arizona, 2004). Recently, collections staff obtained images of the fragments taken in the early 2000s by an assistant working with Bruce Ferrini, a key organizer of those exhibitions. One image proves that SCR.004741 and.SCR.004768 were previously a single fragment and should now be regarded as a unit (though no text is visible on this fragment). This suggests that previous owners either physically altered fragments or neglected to document significant changes.

The findspot for these fragments is unknown. “Unfortunately, little is known about the provenance of these fragments because most sellers did not provide such information at the time of the sale . . . they are not connected to either excavations of Bedouin, and several new collections of this type face the same problem” (Fragments, 5).

Initially, many assumed that these fragments came from the Kando family, one of the first dealers to work with the Bedouin to bring the scrolls to the attention of the world. This would suggest that any fragment purchased from this family could be traced back to the original cave discoveries. Recently, however, scholars have found puzzling features in these “new” fragments, including some of the fragments in the Museum Collections, which calls the authenticity of these newly found fragments into question.

A history of the scrolls’ discovery, with special focus on the newly available fragments, is provided in Hanan Eshel, “The Fate of the Scrolls and Fragments: A Survey from 1946 to the Present” and in Torlief Elgvin, Kipp Davis, and Michael Langlois, eds., Gleanings from the Caves. Dead Sea Scrolls and Artifacts from the Schøyen Collection (London: Bloomsbury T & T Clark, 2016). A 2017 issue of the journal Dead Sea Discoveries focuses specifically on the issue of potential forgeries among these fragments, raising further doubts, which are compounded by the lack of credible provenance. (See Kipp Davis, Ira Rabin, Ines Feldman, Myriam Krutzsch, Hasia Rimon, Årstein Justnes, Torleif Elgvin, and Michael Langlois, “Nine Dubious ‘Dead Sea Scrolls’ Fragments from the Twenty-First Century,” pp. 189–228; Eibert Tigchelaar, “A Provisional List of Unprovenanced, Twenty-First Century Dead Sea Scrolls-like Fragments,” pp. 173–88; and Kipp Davis, “Caves of Dispute,” pp. 229–270.) Based on analysis of the parchment, handwriting, ink, letter forms, layout, and correspondences to modern printed texts, Davis argues that SCR.003170, SCR.003171, SCR.003172, SCR.003173, SCR.003175, and SCR.003183, in particular, show “puzzling correspondences and alarmingly suspicious features in these fragments [that] should at least disqualify them from discussion as genuine textual artefacts from antiquity and prompt further, urgent investigation into their provenance.”

The museum continues to sponsor two research projects on the authenticity of the scrolls. Dr. Kipp Davis received a research grant to continue studies of the provenance and paleographical aspects of all the post-2002 fragments, including those in the Museum Collections. In addition, in April 2017 the museum requested scientific testing of five fragments by the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM). This testing included 3D digital microscopy and scanning X-ray fluorescence (XRF) material analysis of the ink, sediment layers, and chemical characteristics of the sediment. Their report, received in October 2018, raises further suspicions about the authenticity of all five tested fragments (SCR.000124, SCR.003171, SCR 003173 SCR.003175, and SCR.004742). All five fragments show characteristics inconsistent with ancient origin. Museum of the Bible, in consultation with external scholars, has determined that these five will no longer be displayed at the museum pending further research and information.

Analysis and testing of the remaining fragments continue. At the request of the museum, an independent team of experts and scientists from various fields have been working since February 2019 on the project, which includes additional testing methods and is examining all the fragments. The museum continues to support and encourage research on these and other objects in its collections, both to inform the public about new research methods and ensure that our exhibitions present the most accurate and up-to-date information.

As research continues, it is important to understand the complementary roles of the investigation of the provenance, paleography, and material characteristics of the fragments. Scientific testing of manuscripts gathers helpful information about their material features, but the gathered information (like that produced by paleographic research) requires interpretation. Based on the interpretation of the data, the tested manuscripts move along a scale of probabilities, with the interpreted data either adding to the concerns about forgery or maintaining the status quo. Scientific tests cannot prove the authenticity of a manuscript; it can also be difficult (especially if a forger is very skillful) for scientific tests to prove that a manuscript was forged (hence, the BAM report speaks of “characteristics inconsistent with ancient origin”). The testing process seeks to identify features or characteristics of the item that would be inconsistent with the claimed age and origin of the artifact. The tests of the museum’s five fragments revealed apparent inconsistencies in each of them. But even if testing found no inconsistencies, the concerns with paleographic oddities (raised by the research of Davis and others) and provenance would remain.

A full provenance—the documented ownership history of an item—is imperative for an accurate and ethical presentation of humanity’s past. Furthermore, a full and verifiable provenance is important because it helps to verify the authenticity of an item. But modern provenance should not be confused with the archaeological term “provenience,” which refers to the location where an item was discovered or excavated. The apparent Dead Sea Scroll fragments in the MOTB collection—like much of the Dead Sea Scrolls material—lack provenience, meaning their findspot was not professionally documented. At the same time, they do have a documented provenance back to the Kando family. This is an important feature of the fragments’ history, but it does not prove authenticity. The ongoing provenance research digs into the documented ownership history and the Kando family connection, hoping to better understand this complex situation. In short, scientists conducting materials research, curators investigating provenance, and scholars researching paleography all contribute important voices to the long-term investigation.

Documentable certainty is elusive in the case of the case of the dozens of fragments that came to light after 2002. This is largely due to the character of the evidence available thus far—it is often suggestive, but seldom definitive. For example, every one of the paleographical observations that led to the raising of serious questions about the authenticity of the fragments has been disputed or challenged by other well-respected scholars. Because paleography involves informed judgments about matters such as letter shapes and styles, the collective significance of the various observations is often disputed: is the unevenness of a line of letters evidence that an untrained scribe was at work, or does it betray the hand of a forger?

Scientific evidence is often subject to the same uncertainty. For example, the testing did not find any trace of modern contaminants in the ink, but that does not prove that it is ancient; it could have been made recently from an ancient source of carbon, or the testing may not have been extensive enough to rule out all possible modern contaminants. Similarly, the testing provided information about some of the material characteristics of the fragments, but the significance of that information is a matter of interpretation. For example, the test results received to this point that are most significant include the observation of the presence of ink on top of sediment—a “very suspicious” circumstance, according to the BAM test report. Forgery is a very probable explanation for this circumstance, but it is not the only possible explanation, hence the continuing need for further research. As noted above, the museum has launched another scientific research project that will provide what we hope are definitive scientific results.

Early Jewish Prayer Book

Jewish Book of Prayers

This item was acquired in good faith in 2013 after receiving provenance information dating back to the 1950s in the UK. The item was legally exported from the UK. It has been displayed in the US, Israel, and published widely among international news outlets since September 2014. Subsequently, a Museum of the Bible curator discovered published images of the book from 1998, in which the book appears to have been photographed in Afghanistan. Subsequent research has not yet determined the findspot or history of the item prior to 1998. Curators continue to advance this significant research project.

Nevertheless, this Siddur is an exceptional item of unique historical, cultural, and religious significance, and presents great educational potential. In addition to ongoing provenance research, a book project is underway with contributions from specialists in handwriting, manuscript production, Jewish history in Afghanistan, and Jewish liturgical practices. This book project will make the Siddur available for research and enable additional contributions to this one-of-a-kind manuscript. In the meantime, the Siddur will be displayed in the museum in Washington, DC, with a brief description of the provenance issues on the object label.

Torah Scrolls

Torah scrolls have been essential to Jewish communal life for centuries. Torah scrolls are carefully prepared and, after the end of their useful life, retired and stored in a “genizah.” As Jewish communities moved over the centuries throughout the Middle East, Europe, Asia, and eventually North and South America, their scrolls traveled with them. From the 1950s through the 1990s, the Israeli government conducted several “rescue” missions to gather Torah scrolls from Europe and around the world. Many were later given to synagogues, while others became available to collectors. Museum of the Bible has gathered approximately 2,000 such scrolls, dating from the 16th through the 20th century, one of the largest collections in the world. These scrolls have been appropriately retired from use (“decommissioned”) and are preserved in abiding respect for their historical, cultural, and religious significance. Some of the scrolls among the Museum Collections tell fascinating stories. For example, one of these scrolls was commissioned by a Jewish community in Poland. Decades later, it traveled to Brooklyn, New York, where a synagogue stamped the scroll in 1910. From there, it went to Israel. These stamps and other identifying marks on the scrolls provide exciting clues about the communities that used them. Museum of the Bible curators and scholars continue to investigate the history of each scroll, unraveling and revealing their unique stories. A database and research project that documents, categorizes, and makes images available of the unique features of each scroll is in progress.


Jewish faith is celebrated at home as well as in the synagogue. Ritual items, or Judaica, are the beautifully crafted objects used to celebrate Jewish holidays. The objects are chosen, cared for, and passed from generation to generation, keeping alive the warm memories of Shabbat dinners, lighting Hanukkah candles, and celebrating Passover Seders. Kiddush cups, Seder plates, spice boxes, challah knives, and more were lovingly made by artisans and cherished by Jewish families for generations.

As the Green Collection began to search for artifacts that told the story of the history of the Bible, it was natural to gather these types of items from the antique markets of Jerusalem, a center for Jewish art and antiques. From the first Jewish pioneers before WWI to the families who made their way from Europe to Israel after WWII, all manner of Judaica arrived in Jerusalem over the decades and eventually entered the market. Similarly, Jewish agencies recovered and gathered unclaimed Judaica from Germany, Poland, and other countries, and sent these objects to communities and museums in Israel. From this abundance of ritual Judaica, the Green Collection has gathered examples that both illustrate Jewish history and celebrate its creative spirit. Given the nature of the processes by which these objects came to be gathered, sold and re-sold in Israel, little, if any, documentation is available for most objects. Research is proceeding where possible, such as on objects with unique markings and those that can stylistically be placed in a certain geographic location or time period.